Fila Brasileiro Breed Standards

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An item by item comparison between the CAFIB and FCI breed standards for the Fila Brasileiro.

PLEASE NOTE! These items have been placed side by side to better facilitate a comparison for interest's sake. This is NOT the order in which these items appear in the actual breed standards. Also, spelling has been corrected...mostly. To see the original translations of these breed standards, go to their respective web pages.

If you have any suggestions on how to improve upon the way this information is presented, please let me know.

FCI/CBKC Breed Standard

This is taken from the 2004 version of the FCI standard, translated by Jennifer Mulholland & Raymond Triquet.

CAFIB Breed Standard

This is the CAFIB standard written by Paulo Santos Cruz and approved and translated by CAFIB, Brazil.

1. General Appearance

Typically a molossoid breed.  Powerful bones, rectangular and compact structure, but harmonious and well proportioned. Displays, together with a massive body, a great amount of concentrated agility which is easily perceived.  Bitches must show a well defined femininity which clearly distinguishes them from males. 

Important Proportions:

The muzzle is slightly shorter than the skull.

The length of the body, measured from the point of the sternum to the point of buttock, is equal to height at the withers plus 10%.

1. General Appearance

A typical molosser dog. Great size: massive, with strong bones, giving an impression of stout concentration of strength and power, but neither seeming or being heavy, laggard or apathetic.


Massive, rectangular but harmonious, well balanced, and symmetrical. Outstanding secondary sexual characteristics clearly differentiate males from females.

2. Temperament

Courage, determination and outstanding braveness are part of its characteristics.  With its owners and family it is docile, obedient and extremely tolerant with children.  Its loyalty is proverbial, insistingly seeking the company of its master. 

One of its characteristics is its aloofness towards strangers. It displays a calm disposition, distinctive self-assurance and self-confidence, remaining unperturbed by strange noises or circumstances. An unsurpassed guardian of properties, it also instinctively indulges in big game hunting and cattle herding.


In repose it is calm; noble and full of self-assurance.  Never displaying a bored or absent expression.  When alert, its expression should reflect determination conveyed by a firm, penetrating look.

2. Temperament

It is a courageous, determined and daring dog. It does not hide its aversion to strangers, or its traditional tenderness to its owners and family. Consequently, it is an unsurpassed watch dog in the cities, and an excellent herding dog and a hunter of big animals on farms. As a result of its temperament, at dog shows it does not allow the judge(a stranger) to touch it. And if it attacks the judge, such a reaction must not be considered a fault, but only a confirmation of its temperament. At temperament tests, obligatory for dogs over one year old at shows, the Fila attack must be in an ascending diagonal, in front of handler and without showing dependence from him.

Nervous System:

Calm, serene and showing assurance, self confidence, even in strange environments, without being frightened by noises such as firing gun shots at shows. But the shot must not be discharged closer than five meters, and only to test dogs over one year old.

3. Head:

The Fila head is big, heavy and massive, always proportionate to the whole body.  From a top view it resembles a trapezoid figure into which a pear shape is inserted.

3. Head:

Brachiophalar, great, heavy. Seen in profile, the length of the muzzle is practically equal to that of the skull; good depth; outstanding occipital; big and fallen ears; low forehead depression (stop). From the front, it is wide with a strong and convex muzzle, also lightly curved at its sides.

4. Skull:

The profile of the skull shows a smooth curve from the stop to the occiput, which is well defined and protuberant specially in puppies.  From a front view it is large, broad with the upper line slightly curved.  Lateral lines come down almost vertically, in a slight continuous curve narrowing towards the muzzle. 

4. Skull:

Seen in profile, it shows a light curve from the root of muzzle towards the outstanding occipital. Full face, it is wide, large, lightly curved. Its sides go down in a very smooth, almost vertical, curve, without showing swollen parotids and never forming a step at the muzzle. At this point there is just a light curve.


Outstanding, well apart from the nape.

5. Stop:

From a front view it is practically non existent.  The median groove is slight and runs up smoothly to approximately the centre of the skull.  Seen from the side, the stop is only slightly pronounced and virtually only formed by the well developed eyebrows.

5. Stop:

(Forehead depression of frontal cavity) Full face, it virtually doesn't exist. In its place, there is a groove (depression) between the eyes, in a smooth ascent up to the middle of the skull. Seen in profile, it is low, inclined, but perfectly visible, formed by the superciliary arches.

6. Ears:

Pendant, large, thick, V-shaped.  Broad at the base and tapering to the ends.  Rounded tips.  Attached at the back of the skull, in line with the eyes when in repose.  When roused, the ears are above the original position. The root is oblique, with the front edge higher than the back edge. Falling over the cheeks or folded back showing the inside (rose ear).

6. Ears:

Fallen, big, thick, very large at the root, narrowing towards its end, forming a curve around the edge. The root is inclined: the fore edge is higher than the back. Its insertion is at the most rear part of the skull and variable: low when the dog is at rest and high when it is on the alert. Laterally fallen ears and rose ears are allowed.

7. Eyes:

From medium to large size, almond shaped, spaced well apart, medium to deep set.  Permissible colours - from dark brown to yellow, always in accordance to the colour of the coat.  Due to the  loose skin many individuals present drooping lower eyelids which are not considered a fault as such a detail accentuate the melancholic expression which is typical of the breed. 

7. Eyes:

A sad look when at rest, but energetic and determined when on the alert. Of medium to big size, lightly egg shaped, profound, wide apart. Their color varies from dark chestnut to yellow. In harmony with the general color and pigmentation of the fur. Due to the loose skin, some dogs present fallen low eyelids. This is not considered a fault, because it just increases its typical sad expression.

8. Muzzle:

Strong, broad and deep, always in harmony with the skull.  Fairly deep at the root but not deeper than long.  Seen from above, it  is full under the eyes, slightly narrowing towards the middle of the muzzle and again broadening slightly to the front line.  Seen from the side, the muzzle is straight or has a Roman line, but never turned up.  The front line of the muzzle is almost perpendicular to the bridge of the nose with a slight depression right under the nose.

8. Muzzle:

Seen in profile, its length is practically equal to the skull length. Rectangular, but very deep. Nevertheless, its depth should never be equal to or exceed its length. The foreline must be straight, going down lightly, inclined backwards. At half way, it forms a wide and perfect curve down towards the lower line of muzzle, which is also defined by the upper lips.

Full face convex muzzle curves(at front, medium and root), forming a full muzzle, which assures good tooth implantation. As a result, under the eyes, the muzzle is round in sequence it narrows very lightly up to the middle curve and them it enlarges again up to the front curve, originating a widely curved mouth gap. Nevertheless, seen from above the muzzle must not belt at the region of the middle curve, which is only barely perceptible.

9. Lips:

The upper lip is thick and pendulous and overlaps the lower lip in a perfect curve; thus the lower line of the muzzle is almost parallel to the upper line. The lower lip is tight and firm to the fangs and from there on it is loose with dented borders ending at the corners which are always apparent.  The muzzle has a good depth at the root but without surpassing the length.  Edges of the lips form a deep inverted “U”.

9. Lips:

These lips are thick and hang over the lower ones, which are firmly fixed to the mandible (lower jaw), but loose at the sides, showing indented edges. Visible lip (labial) commissure.


10. Nose:

Well developed, broad nostrils not occupying entirely the width of the upper jaw.  Colour : black.

10. Nose:  

Wide nostrils, well developed, but never occupying the whole width of the jaw. Always black.

11. Teeth:

The teeth are significantly wider than long. Strong and white. Upper incisors are broad at their root and taper to the edge.  Canines are powerful, well set and well apart.  The ideal bite is a scissor bite but a level bite is acceptable.

11. Teeth:  

Teeth relatively small, but strong and clear. Upper fore teeth(incisors)are wide at the root and thin at the end. Powerful canine teeth, wide apart. Scissors-shaped bite: this means that the lower incisors close just scraping the inner surface of the upper incisors.

12. Neck:

 Extraordinarily strong and muscled giving the impression of a short neck.  Slightly curved at the upper side and well detached from the skull.  Dewlaps at the throat.

12. Neck:

Generally kept low, it is extraordinarily developed and has strong muscles, but apparently it is short. Its upper edge (nape) is slightly convex, Forming the so called stallion curve. Under the throat it has a parallel double skin, hanging loose, in a longitudinal position(dewlap).


Strong, broad and deep, covered by thick and loose skin.


Strong, wide and deep. The thorax is longer than the abdomen.

14. Thorax:

The thorax is longer than the abdomen.

14. Thorax:

Perfectly arched ribs, forming a wide and deep chest, but never being an obstacle to the free motion of the shoulders. In a well framed shoulder, the ribs must go down till the tip of the elbow.

15. Flank:

Shorter and not so deep as the thorax, showing distinctly the separation of the two component parts.  In females the lower part of the flank is more developed.  Seen from above, the loin is narrower than the thorax and croup but should not form a waistline.

15. Flank:

Less longer and deeper than the thorax, it must be well sculptured, in order to make it possible to differentiate all its parts. Seen from above, it must be less wide and full than the thorax and rump, but without belting.

16. Topline:

Withers, in sloping line, are set well apart from each other due to the distance between the shoulder blades.  Withers are set lower than the croup.  After the withers, the upper line changes direction, ascending smoothly to the croup.  Back line shows no tendency to sway or roach back.

16. Topline:

Upper Line: Open and low withers (plates), on account of the fact that the plates(omoplates) are wide apart. Nevertheless, the withers must be perfectly visible, forming a descending line. At the lowest point of this descent line(hinge), it changes direction, going upward smoothly, in a straight line, till the fore tip of the rump(ilium). So the upper line is formed by two straight lines one till the end of the withers, the other one till the rump.

17. Lower line:

A long chest and parallel to the ground in all its extension.  Slightly tucked up but never whippety.


17. Lower line:

From the tip of the chest(manubrium of sternum) it does down, in a wide and perfect curve, forming the forechest after that, a straight line, parallel to the ground, follows till the rear end of the sternum(xiphoid) and from this point it goes up lightly in the males till the penal sheath, and in the females till the flank lap, which is more developed in them, hiding the ascending line of the abdomen and influencing the lower line.

18. Chest:

Well sprung ribs though not interfering with the position of shoulder.  Deep and broad chest reaching to the level of the elbows.  Well pronounced brisket.

18. Chest:
19. Croup:

Broad, long, sloping at angle of approximately 30 degrees to the horizontal and ending in a smooth curve. The croup is set a little higher than the withers.  From a back view, the croup is ample almost as wide as the chest and can be even  broader for females.

19. Croup:

20. Forequarters:

The length of the leg, from the ground to the elbow, should be half of the height from the ground to the withers.


The shoulder structure should be composed by two bones of equal length (scapula and humerus); the former at 45 degrees to the  horizontal and the latter 90 degrees to the scapula.  The scapla-humerus articulation forms the point of shoulder which is situated at the same level but slightly behind the point of sternum.  In the ideal position, the point of shoulder should be half way from elbow to withers.  An imaginary perpendicular line coming down from the withers should cut the elbow and reach the foot.

20. Forequarters:

They are made up of two bones of equal size; omoplate or scapula and humerus. The former at 45 degrees from the horizon and the last one at 90 degrees from the plate. The joint of the omoplate with the humerus forms the point of the shoulder, which must be at the same level of the chest tip, but a little behind it. In the ideal structure the shoulder should fill the space from the withers to the sternum and the shoulder tip should be just at the middle of this distance.

21. Legs:

Forearm: The limbs must be parallel.  Strong and straight bones.
Carpal joint (wrist): Strong and apparent.
Metacarpus (pastern): Short, slightly sloping.

21. Legs:

Strong and straight bones. Apparent wrists (carpus)short and slightly inclined metacarpus.

22. Feet:

Strong and well arched toes not too close together.  The dog stands on thick toes and pads which are long, broad and deep.  In the correct position, the feet should point forward.  Strong, dark nails; white nails permissible when the corresponding toes are white.

22. Feet:

They are formed by strong and well arched fingers, not too near, supported by thick pads put around a wide, deep and thick foot pad. Fingers are in a correct position when they point ahead. The nails are strong and dark-but can be white when this is color of the respective finger. A perpendicular imaginary line going down from the withers(plates) must reach the elbow and the foot. In the ideal structure, the elbow(olecranium) should be at the sternum level.

23. Hindquarters:

Less heavy boned than forelegs but never appearing thin compared to the overall build. Hind legs are parallel.




23. Hindquarters:

Rump: Structured by the wide and long iliac, forming an angle of 30 degrees from the horizon. There is a smooth curve from the fore tip of the rump (ilium) till the rear (ischium), or the rump end. The ilium tip is at the same level or a little higher than the plates. A horizontal imaginary line starting from the rump end (ischium) must reach the shoulder tip and ahead of the chest tip. This distance defines the length of the dog. Viewed from behind, the hips must be as large as the thorax, mainly in males. In the females the hips can be larger.

24. Thigh:

Broad with curved outline shaped by strong muscles coming from the ilium and ischium which design the curve of the buttocks and for this reason the ischium must have a good length.

24. Thigh:  

Structured by the femur (thigh bone), which forms an angle of approximately 60 degrees from the horizon or from the ground and an angle of 90 degrees from the iliac. It is large, with convex edges, formed by the muscles which go down the ilium and the ischium - the last ones drawing the rump curve. This is the reason why the ischium should always have a good length.

25. Leg:

Tarsus (hock) : Strong.
Metatarsus (Rear pastern) :  Slightly sloping, longer than the metacarpus.  Moderately angled stifle and hock.

25. Leg:

It is mainly formed by the tibia (shin bone). When the angulation is good, the knee outstands and projects the hock backwards. Strong and outstanding ankle (tarsus). The metatarsus (instep) is inclined and higher than the metacarpus. Viewed from the rear, the hind legs must be parallel and the inner part of the thigh should be very muscular.

26 Hind Feet:

A little more oval than the forefeet but the otherwise identical. Should not present dewclaws.

26 Hind Feet:

They are little bit more egg shaped than the fore feet and equal to these in the rest. They must not have dewclaws (ergots).

27. Tail:

Very wide at the root, medium set, tapering rapidly to reach the hocks. When the dog is alert, the tail is raised high and the curve at the extremity is more accentuated.  Should not be carried curled over the back nor touch it.

27. Tail:  

Viewed in profile, it should not interfere with the rump curve on the contrary, it must be well adapted to it, not outstanding too much. Its insertion is medium. When the dog is excited, it goes up, but it must never take an upright position or even fall over the back. At the end it forms an open curve (hook curve), but it should never twist up. When the dog is at rest, it falls straight, till the hock. Seen from rear, its root must be very wide and strong, narrowing little by little down to its end.

28. Skin:

One of the most important breed characteristics is the thick, loose skin over the whole body, chiefly at the neck forming pronounced dewlaps and many times it can extend to the brisket and abdomen.  Some individuals present a fold at the sides of the head, also at the withers running down to the shoulders. If the dog is in repose, the head should be free from wrinkles.  When alert, the dog raises its ears and the contraction of the skin on the skull forms small longitudinal wrinkles between the ears.

28. Skin:  

It is one the most important characteristics of the breed, it must be thick, loose all over the trunk, mainly in the neck, and forming a dewlap at the throat. In many cases this dewlap goes down the chest and abdomen. Some dogs have a ply (wrinkle) at head, sides, and also at the withers and shoulders. When the dog is at rest, the head must not present plies. When it is on the alert, the contraction of the skull skin, in order to raise the ears, will form little longitudinal plies.

29. Coat:

Hair: Short, smooth, dense and close to the body.


29. Coat:

Fur: Low, short and flat coat. The hair is rough and thick, a characteristic which can be easily detected by sight and touch. A little thicker at the withers.

30. Colors:

Any solid colours are permitted except the disqualifying ones.  Brindles with a solid coat and more or less dark stripes.

A black mask may or may not be present.  In all permitted colours white marks are allowed on the feet, chest and tip of tail.  White markings on other parts of the coat are considered a fault.


30. Colors:

The following colors are allowed:
1st: Yellow in all its shades, from the reddish brown(light bay) to red.

2nd: Yellow in all its shades, from the reddish brown to red, but with a gray shadow.

3rd: The first and second colors, but with black mask and ears, or only black mask.

4th: Striped like a tiger, or "araca" (yellow hair with split black stripes). Basic color equal to one of the previous ones with black stripes or streaks. The streaks are thin, with the same width from the beginning to the end and irregularly distributed all over the body. They also have different lengths and link at the upper line of the body, along the vertebral column, drawing a "V".

5th: Striped with black mask and ears.

6th: White with big brindled spots, like those described in item number 4. The white color must be pure, without dark spots on the skin (making shadows).

7th: Light gray, silver

8th: Any of these colors with white spots, usually on the members, chest and tail and not so frequently on the neck and muzzle, going up to the head.

31. Gait:

Movement: Long and elastic feline-like strides whose principal  characteristic is the pace; a two beat lateral gait in which the legs of each side move back and forth exactly as a pair (“camel’s pace” or amble) causing a rolling or rocking motion of the thorax and hips accentuated by the tail when carried erect.  When walking, it carries the head lower than the back line. The trot is smooth, free and effortless with a long, powerful and reaching stride. The gallop is powerful, attaining unsuspected speed for such a large and heavy dog.  Due to its articulations, typical of molossoids, the Fila’s movements not only give the impression but actually allow him to make sudden and rapid changes of direction.

31. Gait:

Motion: Walk: Wide, elastic and rhythmical paces, but at the same time seemingly heavy, just like the felines. While walking, its head must be at the level of or below the back line. When walking, the main characteristic is that the Fila first moves two legs of one side of the body and then the opposite legs, in a perfect camel step. As a result, there is an alternate side swing of the thorax and hips, which is emphasized by the tail when it is upwards.

Trot: Easy, soft, light, wide and efficient.
Gallop: Powerful, reaching an unsuspected speed for a dog of such a size and weight.

Fila movements, while walking, make evident its loose joints in the legs and vertebral column, a characteristic of the breed. As a results, the Fila is able to change direction suddenly and quickly, even at a gallop.

32. Height:

Height at withers: Males: from 65 cm (25.6 ins) to 75 cm (29.5 ins) at the shoulder.

Bitches: from 60 cm (23.6 ins) to 70 cm (27.5 ins) at the shoulder.

32. Height:

(at the withers) Minimum: males 65cm, females 60cm. Maximum: males 70cm, females 65cm.

33. Weight:

Males: minimum: 50 kgs (100 pounds)
Bitches: minimum: 40 kgs (80 pounds).

33. Weight:  

Males around 50kg, females 40kg.

34. Faults:

Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.

1. Cropped ears - eliminating fault

2. Docked Tails
- eliminating fault
3. Flesh-colored nose - eliminating fault
Undershot bite with teeth visible when the mouth is closed or Undershot bite with teeth visible when the mouth is closed- eliminating fault
5. Lack of 1 canine or 1 molar except the 3rd one
- eliminating fault
White markings exceeding 1/4th (one fourth) of the body - very serious fault
7. All dogs which are white, mouse-grey, carrying small or large marks; black and tan, blue -
eliminating fault
8. Black is permitted - not a fault
9. Slate black seems to be permitted
Jet or slate black with white spots seems to be permitted
11. Mouse grey - eliminating fault
12. Blue - eliminating fault
13. Grey with black spots - eliminating fault
14. No comment on mouth gap as a fault
15. Aggressive or overly shy - eliminating fault
Although nothing is said about reaction to gunshots it does say apathy and timidity are a very serious fault.

Here are the FCI Standard faults listed in order:

Serious Faults:

  • Short muzzle.

  • Small ears.

  • Highly set ears.

  • Excessively light coloured eyes.

  • Wrinkles when the dog is in repose.

  • Undershot bite.

  • Double chin (folds in front of dewlap).

  • Sway back.

  • Very narrow croup.

  • Curled tail carried over the back.

  • Chest insufficiently deep.

  • Pronounced deviation of pastern or rear pastern.

  • Over angulated hindquarters (sickle hocks).

  • Short steps (poor reach).

Very Serious Faults:

  • Apathy and timidity.

  • Square build.

  • Small head.

  • Pronounced stop seen from the front.

  • Short upper lip.

  • Protruding eyes. Round eyes. Lack of pigmentation on eyelids.

  • Lack of 2 teeth except PM1 (first premolars).

  • Lack of dewlaps.

  • Roach back or level back.

  • Excessive tuckup.

  • Light bones. Lack of substance.

  • Cow hocks.

  • Lack of angulation at the hindquarters (straight hocks).

  • White markings exceeding 1/4th (one fourth) of the body.

  • Height exceeding the maximum


  • Aggressive or overly shy.

  • Flesh-coloured nose.

  • Overshot bite.

  • Undershot bite with teeth visible when the mouth is closed.

  • Lack of 1 canine or 1 molar except the 3rd one.

  • Wall eyes.

  • Cropped ears or docked tail.

  • Croup lower than the withers.

  • Dog not walking at camel's pace.

  • Skin not loose and supple.

  • All dogs which are white, mouse-grey,

  • carrying small or large marks; black and tan, blue.

  • Height inferior to the minimum.

  • Cryptorchids or monorchids, use of artificial methods to produce certain effects, albinism, lack of type.

  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

N.B. : Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

34. Faults:  

Everything that is far from the ideal described in this standard. The faults are more serious in direct ratio to their distance from the ideal.

General Disqualifications:

1st: Cut ears
2nd: Cut tails
3rd: Flesh color nose
4th: Prognathism influencing the fore line of the muzzle
5th: Any dental lack
6th: White without any spot of another color
7th: White (basic color) with black spots
8th: Jet Black
9th: Slate black
10th: Jet or slate black with white spots
11th: Mouse (rat) gray
12th: Bluish gray
13th: Gray (basic color) with black spots
14th: Mouth gap in acute angle
15th: Temper without a positive reaction to attack
16th: Strong negative sensibility to shot

Mixbreeding Disqualifications:

Important notes:
1st: Here are listed the most common faults. To make it easier to understand them, they are divided by items like the general aspect, head, etc. On account of the great variety of genetical heritages and consequently of phenotypes, the judge will not find a group of these characters it just one dog. So the judge must disqualify a dog whenever he finds one or more of these faults, and when he gets convinced of mixbreeding by the intensity and representation of them

2nd: There are dogs with somatical (physical) details which imply several mixbreedings. This fact must not be a surprise to the judge, because it only proves the extension and the variety of miscegenation (mixbreeding) with several (and not only just one) breeds.

A) Neopolitan Mastiff Mixbreedings:

1- A strongly brevilineous type, with short legs, wide chest. Concave upper line, resulting in high and plane rump and high insertion of tail, which is short, tending to twist up and fall over the back. Lower line in opposite curves, concave in the thorax (thorax like a sleeping net) and convex in the abdomen(tucking up).

2- Wide skull, its curves go down the arched sides of the head just like in a ball. In contrast, the muzzle seems narrower. High insertion ears, Round "stop", formed by the frontal bone, which is high at the forehead, Mouth gap in acute angle. Viewed in profile, the muzzle depth is equal to or bigger than its length. Full face it is narrow. So the nose occupies all its front. Without convex curves. Transversal loose skin at throat. A boring expression with half closed eyes and open mouth, showing the tip of the tongue.

3- Slate black color, gray as a basic color, with black stripes lead gray.

B) Great Dane Mixbreedings:

1- Square figure, longilineous, long legged, long necked and with scarce dewlap at the throat. As a result of short sternum, the lower line tucks up in a diagonal (herring thorax). Very big flank lap, even in males. Firm joints and hard motion. Rump without inclination. Thin tail. Opened shoulders, going onward and placed just under the neck.

2- Narrow head. Big and large nose. Not very deep head. Plain and flat skull small "stop" narrow and thin ears, highly inserted. Eyes tending to blue. Long muzzle, with lower line parallel to the upper one.

3- Jet black color, mouse gray or bluish gray, gray, as basic color, with black spots, white with black or gray spots, or with spots of these two colors. Low fur, with very thin hair, too close to the body.

C) English Mastiff Mixbreedings:

1- Huge shape, tending to square. Straight back. Withers higher than the rump.

2- Full face, the head is wide, seeming narrow between the ears, which are small, in a "V" shape, thin, highly inserted (practically at the top of the skull line), and almost always black. Globular forehead, abrupt "stop", formed by the frontal bone. Wrinkled skin at forehead. Little outstanding occipital. Viewed in profile, the muzzle length is half the skull length (1 to 2). Deep at the root, but less deep at the tip, where the upper lip is not so deep. The fore line forms a right angle with the upper line and is vertical. It may be inclined forwards, as a result of pincers shaped bite or inferior prognathism. Prominent chin, resulting in an inclined fore line. Black mask.

3- Yellow apricot as a basic color, with too many large and egg shaped stripes put together, forming black stains. They are so numerous that the visible parts of the basic color are practically of the same width of the stains, giving a false idea of striped or a dark tigerlike color.




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